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Located on the middle section of the Southern area of Mogao, constructed in the Early Tang and renovated in the Late Tang, this is a hall cave of medium size with a truncated pyramidal ceiling. The ceiling cener highlight a pattern of two coiled dragon and lotuses with draperies extending to the four slopes. There are asparas flying around the central design (sootiness), and the thousand Buddha motif on the four slopes  are black due to sootiness.There west niche with a double-recessed entrance contains a seven-figure group of statues: a seated Buddha, two disciples, and four bodhisatvas (one lost). The walls in the inner niche are decorated with an aureole of flame motifs, halos, and on both sides are a disciple and an apsara. The top of the outer niche is a niche beam decorated with flames and lotuses, and there is an apsara on either side. The west wall in the niche contain a niche pillar and a pensive bodhisattva, while the north and south walls  respectively show a bodhisattva. There are six apsaras on the niche beam, who are flying toward the central offerings. The north and south sides out of the niche are devoted to the Conception and the Great Departure respectively, both containing two bodhisattvas in the lower part. Beneath the niche are the offerings flanked by five bodhisattvas on either side.Each of the south and north walls are covered with a central preaching scene amid the thousand Buddha motifs. The south wall also depicts a row of female donors of the Early Tang (blurred) and the opposite north, a row of female donors of the Late Tang (blurred).The space above the entrance in the east wall is divided into the upper and lower sections. The upper is covered with the thousand Buddha motifs and there was a painting of seven Buddhas of the Early Tang in the lower part (destroyed when the corridor was renovated in the Late Tang). The corridor has a tent-like  ceiling, which was rebuilt in the Late Tang. In the center is an illustration of the Medicine Buddha. The north and south sides of the entrance consist of three parts: on the upper parts are thousand Buddha motifs, on the middle ones are preaching scenes, and the lower parts are destroyed. In the front chamber, the space above the entrance in the west wall is filled with the Maitreya sutra illustration, which is flanked by the picture of the Vidudabha (king of the south,blurred) on the south side of the entrance and that of the Vaisravana (king of the north, blurred)on the north, all painted in the Late Tang period.

Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes Cave 057

  • DYNASTY::Early Tang Dynasty(A.D.618-712)
  • Summary:Located on the middle section of the Southern area of Mogao, constructed in the Early Tang and renovated in the Late Tang, this is a hall cave of medium size with a truncated pyramidal ceiling. The ceiling cener highlight a pattern of two coiled dragon and lotuses with draperies extending to the four slopes. There are asparas flying around the central design (sootiness), and the thousand Buddha motif on the four slopes are black due to sootiness.There west niche with a double-recessed entrance contains a seven-figure group of statues: a seated Buddha, two disciples, and four bodhisatvas (one lost). The walls in the inner niche are decorated with an aureole of flame motifs, halos, and on both sides are a disciple and an apsara. The top of the outer niche is a niche beam decorated with flames and lotuses, and there is an apsara on either side. The west wall in the niche contain a niche pillar and a pensive bodhisattva, while the north and south walls respectively show a bodhisattva. There are six apsaras on the niche beam, who are flying toward the central offerings. The north and south sides out of the niche are devoted to the Conception and the Great Departure respectively, both containing two bodhisattvas in the lower part. Beneath the niche are the offerings flanked by five bodhisattvas on either side.Each of the south and north walls are covered with a central preaching scene amid the thousand Buddha motifs. The south wall also depicts a row of female donors of the Early Tang (blurred) and the opposite north, a row of female donors of the Late Tang (blurred).The space above the entrance in the east wall is divided into the upper and lower sections. The upper is covered with the thousand Buddha motifs and there was a painting of seven Buddhas of the Early Tang in the lower part (destroyed when the corridor was renovated in the Late Tang). The corridor has a tent-like ceiling, which was rebuilt in the Late Tang. In the center is an illustration of the Medicine Buddha. The north and south sides of the entrance consist of three parts: on the upper parts are thousand Buddha motifs, on the middle ones are preaching scenes, and the lower parts are destroyed. In the front chamber, the space above the entrance in the west wall is filled with the Maitreya sutra illustration, which is flanked by the picture of the Vidudabha (king of the south,blurred) on the south side of the entrance and that of the Vaisravana (king of the north, blurred)on the north, all painted in the Late Tang period....
The date of construction is not clear and it is supposed that this cave was  constructed in the Early Tang period. This cave consists of the front chamber with a gabled ceiling, which partly survives, and the main chamber which is square in plan with a truncated pyramidal ceiling. The themes of the murals are mainly Buddhist historical stories.  The painted statues were renovated in the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and the Qing dynasty. The ceiling center depicts a large medallion surrounded by the draperies which extend to the four slopes, and the four slopes are covered with the thousand Buddha motifs. There is a niche with a flat ceiing in the west wall, which contains a five-stucco grouping, all renovated in the Qing dynasty. The central figure in the niche is The Buddha seated with legs pendent, flanked by two disciples, two bodhisattvas who stand on a lotus throne. On the ceiling of the niche is a parasol with Bodhi trees and two apsaras. The wall is covered with the mountains in bas relief (renovated in the Qing dynasty) which is connected with the landscape in the murals on the south and north sides out of the niche. Above the niche are Buddhas and clouds. A Buddha seated in meditation was painted below the niche in the Western Xia. Underliying this layer are remains of murals of the Early Tang and the Five dynasties.The upper section of the south wall  is decorated with the Thousand-Buddha motif, and the middle section  is covered with three stories of Buddhist history from the west side to the east side, 1. Two Stone Buddha's floating on the River in the Western Jin Dynasty, 2. a Golden Image Appearing from the River in Yangzhou in  the Eastern Jin Dynasty, and 3. Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty Welcoming Master Tanyan. The lower section has images of  seven Bodhisattvas. The upper part of the north wall is covered with the Thousand Buddha motif, and on the middle part are five stories of Buddhist history from west to east: 1. Emperor Wu of the Western Han obtaining two golden images from the Huns and sending Zhang Qian on a diplomatic mission to explore the western region; 2. The pond where Sakyamuni washed his kasaya and the stone he dried his Kasaya; 3. Fo Tucheng's miraculous events; 4. King Asoka worshiping the heritics'pagoda; and 5. Kang Senghui's magic power. The lower part has images of seven bodhisattvas. The space above the entrance wall is filled with a Thousand-Buddha motif above eleven Buddhist figures including Bodhisattva Maitreya and Akasobhya painged in the Five Dyansties. The south side of the entrance has paintings about Buddhist disciplines in the upper part and four Buddha seated in meditation below. The north side of the entrance wall depicts Buddhist disciplines in the upper and three seated Buddhas below. These pictures painted in a group to show how Buddhist monks made various vows to obey Buddhist disciplines based on the Mahanirvana Sutra translated by Dharmaksema in the Northern Liang dynasty.The top of the corridor is decorated with medallions painted in the Western Xia, and each side wall has three attendant Bodhisattvas. The west slope of the front chamber is decorated with three pictures of the Western Xia medallions (damaged). The south side of the west wall depicts the illustration of Samantabhadra while the opposite part shows an illustration of Manjusri (blurred). Beneath the surface layer there are traces of Early Tang and Five Dynasties murals. A small cave is dug out of the upper section in both the north and south wall. The north one with the Western Xia murals is numbered cave 324, while the south one with a preaching scene of the Western Xia is numbered cave 325. The main space of both of the side walls and the entrance wall are respectively occupied with the historical stories of Buddhism and Buddhist sacred lands as well as Buddhist disciplines. There themes are rare in both the sculptures and murals in other grottoes in China and also very rare in the Mogao murals. The appearance of these murals marked the Sinicization of Buddhistm and so they are of high artistic and historical value.

Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes Cave 323

  • DYNASTY::Early Tang Dynasty(A.D.618-712)
  • Summary:The date of construction is not clear and it is supposed that this cave was constructed in the Early Tang period. This cave consists of the front chamber with a gabled ceiling, which partly survives, and the main chamber which is square in plan with a truncated pyramidal ceiling. The themes of the murals are mainly Buddhist historical stories. The painted statues were renovated in the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and the Qing dynasty. The ceiling center depicts a large medallion surrounded by the draperies which extend to the four slopes, and the four slopes are covered with the thousand Buddha motifs. There is a niche with a flat ceiing in the west wall, which contains a five-stucco grouping, all renovated in the Qing dynasty. The central figure in the niche is The Buddha seated with legs pendent, flanked by two disciples, two bodhisattvas who stand on a lotus throne. On the ceiling of the niche is a parasol with Bodhi trees and two apsaras. The wall is covered with the mountains in bas relief (renovated in the Qing dynasty) which is connected with the landscape in the murals on the south and north sides out of the niche. Above the niche are Buddhas and clouds. A Buddha seated in meditation was painted below the niche in the Western Xia. Underliying this layer are remains of murals of the Early Tang and the Five dynasties.The upper section of the south wall is decorated with the Thousand-Buddha motif, and the middle section is covered with three stories of Buddhist history from the west side to the east side, 1. Two Stone Buddha's floating on the River in the Western Jin Dynasty, 2. a Golden Image Appearing from the River in Yangzhou in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, and 3. Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty Welcoming Master Tanyan. The lower section has images of seven Bodhisattvas. The upper part of the north wall is covered with the Thousand Buddha motif, and on the middle part are five stories of Buddhist history from west to east: 1. Emperor Wu of the Western Han obtaining two golden images from the Huns and sending Zhang Qian on a diplomatic mission to explore the western region; 2. The pond where Sakyamuni washed his kasaya and the stone he dried his Kasaya; 3. Fo Tucheng's miraculous events; 4. King Asoka worshiping the heritics'pagoda; and 5. Kang Senghui's magic power. The lower part has images of seven bodhisattvas. The space above the entrance wall is filled with a Thousand-Buddha motif above eleven Buddhist figures including Bodhisattva Maitreya and Akasobhya painged in the Five Dyansties. The south side of the entrance has paintings about Buddhist disciplines in the upper part and four Buddha seated in meditation below. The north side of the entrance wall depicts Buddhist disciplines in the upper and three seated Buddhas below. These pictures painted in a group to show how Buddhist monks made various vows to obey Buddhist disciplines based on the Mahanirvana Sutra translated by Dharmaksema in the Northern Liang dynasty.The top of the corridor is decorated with medallions painted in the Western Xia, and each side wall has three attendant Bodhisattvas. The west slope of the front chamber is decorated with three pictures of the Western Xia medallions (damaged). The south side of the west wall depicts the illustration of Samantabhadra while the opposite part shows an illustration of Manjusri (blurred). Beneath the surface layer there are traces of Early Tang and Five Dynasties murals. A small cave is dug out of the upper section in both the north and south wall. The north one with the Western Xia murals is numbered cave 324, while the south one with a preaching scene of the Western Xia is numbered cave 325. The main space of both of the side walls and the entrance wall are respectively occupied with the historical stories of Buddhism and Buddhist sacred lands as well as Buddhist disciplines. There themes are rare in both the sculptures and murals in other grottoes in China and also very rare in the Mogao murals. The appearance of these murals marked the Sinicization of Buddhistm and so they are of high artistic and historical value. ...
Constructed in the Early Tang and renovated in the Five Dynasties and Qing dynasty, this cave has a truncated pyramidal ceiling. In the ceiling center is a pattern of a large medallion composed of lotuses in the center, looking like a five-colored Dharma wheel, and it is surrounded by circles of various motifs such as the clouds, honeysuckles, flowers, triangles, and draperies.The four slopes each depict three apsaras flying around the center in a same direction. At the bottom are the thousand Buddha motifs. A niche is dug out of the west wall, containing a central seated Buddha flanked by two disciples and four bodhisattvas. All except the torso, costume and the diamond throne were renovated or painted in the Later Qing dynasty. On the two sides of the niche, the thousand Buddha motifs are painted in the upper and incarnated boys on lotuses are painted below. There is a desk with offerings on it and six bodhisattvas at the bottom of the west wall, most of which are blurred. The upper part of the south wall presents an illustration of the Amitabha sutra, in which the pavilions and platforms are separated by green water and the buildings are connected by various bridges. Amitabha is in the center, and on the platforms on both sides of Amitabha are groups of bodhisattvas respectively led by Avalokitesvara or Mahasthamaprapta. On the platform below the central Buddha are bodhisattvas, disciples, and music and dance scenes. In the pond there are different magic birds including Kalavinka.The lower part of the south wall depicts three Buddhist nuns and twenty-three female donor figures. The upper part of the north wall is occupied with an illustration of the Amitabha sutra (two pieces were taken away by Langdon Warner), which was divided into two sections from top down. The center of the upper section shows a preaching scene of Maitreya Bodhisattva in Tusita Heaven based on The Sutra of Maitreya's Rebirth up in the Heaven.  The other parts show the three Assemblies of Maitreya under the dragon flower trees. The first assembly is under the preaching scene in the Tusita Heaven and the second and third are respectively painted on the left and right sides. The lower part of the north wall contains seventeen male donor figures. There are four preaching scenes in the space above the entrance wall. The north and south sides of the entrance wall respectively depict a preaching scene in the upper part and  female and male donor figures in the middle.  There is a row of donor figures and chariots drawn by oxen. The tent-like ceiling of the corridor has story paintings of the Five Dynasties in the center and five Buddhas in meditation on both slopes. On the south wall are three Buddhist monks and on the north a male donor figure. The ceiling of the front chamber is occupied by the illustrations of Amogha-pasa, thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokitesvara and Cintamani-cakra, all partly damaged, in the space above the entrance in the west wall there is an inscription of the Five Dynasties, and on its both sides are scenes of Vaisravana meeting Nezha. Both the north and south sides of the entrance depict a scene of eight dragon kings worshipping the Buddha painted in the Five dyansties, though obscured. There are traces of disciples and bodhisattvas on both the north and south walls in the front chamber.

Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes Cave 329

  • DYNASTY::Early Tang Dynasty(A.D.618-712)
  • Summary:Constructed in the Early Tang and renovated in the Five Dynasties and Qing dynasty, this cave has a truncated pyramidal ceiling. In the ceiling center is a pattern of a large medallion composed of lotuses in the center, looking like a five-colored Dharma wheel, and it is surrounded by circles of various motifs such as the clouds, honeysuckles, flowers, triangles, and draperies.The four slopes each depict three apsaras flying around the center in a same direction. At the bottom are the thousand Buddha motifs. A niche is dug out of the west wall, containing a central seated Buddha flanked by two disciples and four bodhisattvas. All except the torso, costume and the diamond throne were renovated or painted in the Later Qing dynasty. On the two sides of the niche, the thousand Buddha motifs are painted in the upper and incarnated boys on lotuses are painted below. There is a desk with offerings on it and six bodhisattvas at the bottom of the west wall, most of which are blurred. The upper part of the south wall presents an illustration of the Amitabha sutra, in which the pavilions and platforms are separated by green water and the buildings are connected by various bridges. Amitabha is in the center, and on the platforms on both sides of Amitabha are groups of bodhisattvas respectively led by Avalokitesvara or Mahasthamaprapta. On the platform below the central Buddha are bodhisattvas, disciples, and music and dance scenes. In the pond there are different magic birds including Kalavinka.The lower part of the south wall depicts three Buddhist nuns and twenty-three female donor figures. The upper part of the north wall is occupied with an illustration of the Amitabha sutra (two pieces were taken away by Langdon Warner), which was divided into two sections from top down. The center of the upper section shows a preaching scene of Maitreya Bodhisattva in Tusita Heaven based on The Sutra of Maitreya's Rebirth up in the Heaven. The other parts show the three Assemblies of Maitreya under the dragon flower trees. The first assembly is under the preaching scene in the Tusita Heaven and the second and third are respectively painted on the left and right sides. The lower part of the north wall contains seventeen male donor figures. There are four preaching scenes in the space above the entrance wall. The north and south sides of the entrance wall respectively depict a preaching scene in the upper part and female and male donor figures in the middle. There is a row of donor figures and chariots drawn by oxen. The tent-like ceiling of the corridor has story paintings of the Five Dynasties in the center and five Buddhas in meditation on both slopes. On the south wall are three Buddhist monks and on the north a male donor figure. The ceiling of the front chamber is occupied by the illustrations of Amogha-pasa, thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokitesvara and Cintamani-cakra, all partly damaged, in the space above the entrance in the west wall there is an inscription of the Five Dynasties, and on its both sides are scenes of Vaisravana meeting Nezha. Both the north and south sides of the entrance depict a scene of eight dragon kings worshipping the Buddha painted in the Five dyansties, though obscured. There are traces of disciples and bodhisattvas on both the north and south walls in the front chamber. ...
Located on the middle section of the Southern Area at Mogao and constructed in the Early Tang dynasty (renovated in the Middle Tang, Later Tang, Five Dynasties, Song and Qing dynasties), this cave has a truncated pyramidal ceiling and a niche in the west wall. It is one of the representative Tang dynasty caves. It was perhaps in the Song  or Western Xia period that the paintings in this cave were all covered with the thousand Buddha motifs. In 1944, the Dunhuang Art Research Institute removed the upper layer murals on the four walls, revealing the original Early Tang paintings. The west niche contains a central Buddha flanked by two disciples and two bodhisattvas (renovated in the Qing dynasty). The donor figures of the Early Tang below the niche are vague. The illustrations of the Vimalakirti and Manjusri are respectively rendered on the two sides out of the niche. The south wall is occupied by the Amitayus sutra illustration, and the north wall by the Medicine Buddha illustration. There are two scenes of dancers in the north wall (called as the whirling dance by some scholars).  A preaching scene is painted on the space above the cave entrance.  There are also two figures, a male and a female.  There is also an inscription dating to the 16th year of Zhengguan era (642 CE). The two sides of the entrance wall are devoted to the Vimalakirti sutra illustration. In 1975, the Dunhuang Art Research Institute has removed the surface layer of the paintings as a whole, thus revealing the intact bottom paintings: a new styled illustration of Manjusri in the Tongguang third year (925) of the Five Dynasties, seven donor figures including that of Zhai Fengda, an inscription (on the north wall), a niche painted in the Middle Tang, a Buddha, a monk and seven donors painted in the Later Tang, an inscription about the Examination of the Family Tree written by Zhai Fengda (on the south wall). Each picture in this cave is a masterpiece, and the image of Vimalakirti in particular is of the highest level. The emperor and ministers can be compared with the Emperors of the Past Dynasties painted by Yan Liben. The dancing scene and the music band in the Medicine Buddha illustration are precious material for studying the music and dance.

Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes Cave 220

  • DYNASTY::Early Tang Dynasty(A.D.618-712)
  • Summary:Located on the middle section of the Southern Area at Mogao and constructed in the Early Tang dynasty (renovated in the Middle Tang, Later Tang, Five Dynasties, Song and Qing dynasties), this cave has a truncated pyramidal ceiling and a niche in the west wall. It is one of the representative Tang dynasty caves. It was perhaps in the Song or Western Xia period that the paintings in this cave were all covered with the thousand Buddha motifs. In 1944, the Dunhuang Art Research Institute removed the upper layer murals on the four walls, revealing the original Early Tang paintings. The west niche contains a central Buddha flanked by two disciples and two bodhisattvas (renovated in the Qing dynasty). The donor figures of the Early Tang below the niche are vague. The illustrations of the Vimalakirti and Manjusri are respectively rendered on the two sides out of the niche. The south wall is occupied by the Amitayus sutra illustration, and the north wall by the Medicine Buddha illustration. There are two scenes of dancers in the north wall (called as the whirling dance by some scholars). A preaching scene is painted on the space above the cave entrance. There are also two figures, a male and a female. There is also an inscription dating to the 16th year of Zhengguan era (642 CE). The two sides of the entrance wall are devoted to the Vimalakirti sutra illustration. In 1975, the Dunhuang Art Research Institute has removed the surface layer of the paintings as a whole, thus revealing the intact bottom paintings: a new styled illustration of Manjusri in the Tongguang third year (925) of the Five Dynasties, seven donor figures including that of Zhai Fengda, an inscription (on the north wall), a niche painted in the Middle Tang, a Buddha, a monk and seven donors painted in the Later Tang, an inscription about the Examination of the Family Tree written by Zhai Fengda (on the south wall). Each picture in this cave is a masterpiece, and the image of Vimalakirti in particular is of the highest level. The emperor and ministers can be compared with the Emperors of the Past Dynasties painted by Yan Liben. The dancing scene and the music band in the Medicine Buddha illustration are precious material for studying the music and dance....
Constructed in the reign time of Empress Wu Zetian in the Tang dynasty, this is a hall cave with a truncated pyramidal ceiling. The ceiling center features a large medallion surrounded by the draperies of twisted vines and half medallions that extend to the four slopes covered with the thousand Buddha motifs (a part of the south slope is damaged). The central Buddha is the original Early Tang work, the other statues including disciples, bodhisattvas and guardian warriors were all renovated or repainted in the Qing dyansty. The arch ceiling of the niche is decorated with double-layered railing against which is a row of bodhisattvas looking downwards. Behind them is the vast sky with apsaras, clouds, flowers, palaces, and fairy ladies. The sutra illustration on the south wall was first identified as that of the Lotus Sutra and finally as that of the Ten Wheel Sutra, which this text adopts. This sutra is mainly about the belief in Ksitigabha bodhisattva and it consists of four parts respectively on Ksitigabha, on the Ten Wheels, on the Period of Termination, and on the Six Perfections. In composition, the sutra illutration is largely divided into four areas: 1. the center for the preaching scene; 2. the middle of the west side for the salvations of Ksitigabha; 3. The upper part of the west side for the manifestations of Ksitigabha (some scenes are rendered on the upper of the east side), according to the sutras, Ksitigabha has fouty-four manifestations; 4. The east side for the Candala of the Kshatriya class (The Jataka of King Elephant is on the west side in this area).   The north wall was completely occupied by the Amitabha sutra illustration. In the center is the preaching scene of the Buddha and on two sides are bodhisattvas listening to Buddha's preaching. The architecture in this illustration is very special. Above the water are platforms and two side corridors, the pavillion with an east Asian hip and gable roof consists of two storeys, three jian in depth and three jian in width. There is no eave under the flat base of the upper storey. This kind of depiction is only seen among the Early Tang paintings.There is no window or wall between the pillars of the upper and lower storeys, which is replaced by the hanging curtains. The ground of the platform is paved with flowered tiles, similar to the customs of the Tang dynasty.  On the space above the east entrance is a preaching scene, and on either side of it is a preaching scene of a seated Buddha. The south side of the entrance contains a standing Buddha and two bodhisattva in the center and a row of male donors of the Five Dynasties below (obscured). The north side contains a eleven-headed Avalokitesvara illustration in the center, and a row of male donors painted in the Five Dynasties (obscured). On the lower parts of the north and east walls in the main chamber are male donor figures, most of them have been obscured. Judged from the numbers in the surviving inscriptions, people who sponsored the construction of this cave were mainly from the Zhang, Lihu,and Cao families. On the tent-like ceiling of the corridor are part of a parasol and a desk painted in the Five dynasties. The north and south slopes are decorated with hanging draperies.On the tent-like ceiling of the corridor are part of a parasol and a desk painted in the Five dynasties. The north and south slopes are decorated with hanging draperies. A hell illustration was rendered on the south side of the entrance in the west wall of the front chamber (which was revealed in 1965 by removing the surface layer of paintings), and on the north side beneath the Five Dynasties paitnings are traces of the Early Tang murals. The south wall is covered with a Samantabhadra illustration (imcomplete) and the north wall with the Manjusri illustration (incomplete).

Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes Cave 321

  • DYNASTY::Early Tang Dynasty(A.D.618-712)
  • Summary:Constructed in the reign time of Empress Wu Zetian in the Tang dynasty, this is a hall cave with a truncated pyramidal ceiling. The ceiling center features a large medallion surrounded by the draperies of twisted vines and half medallions that extend to the four slopes covered with the thousand Buddha motifs (a part of the south slope is damaged). The central Buddha is the original Early Tang work, the other statues including disciples, bodhisattvas and guardian warriors were all renovated or repainted in the Qing dyansty. The arch ceiling of the niche is decorated with double-layered railing against which is a row of bodhisattvas looking downwards. Behind them is the vast sky with apsaras, clouds, flowers, palaces, and fairy ladies. The sutra illustration on the south wall was first identified as that of the Lotus Sutra and finally as that of the Ten Wheel Sutra, which this text adopts. This sutra is mainly about the belief in Ksitigabha bodhisattva and it consists of four parts respectively on Ksitigabha, on the Ten Wheels, on the Period of Termination, and on the Six Perfections. In composition, the sutra illutration is largely divided into four areas: 1. the center for the preaching scene; 2. the middle of the west side for the salvations of Ksitigabha; 3. The upper part of the west side for the manifestations of Ksitigabha (some scenes are rendered on the upper of the east side), according to the sutras, Ksitigabha has fouty-four manifestations; 4. The east side for the Candala of the Kshatriya class (The Jataka of King Elephant is on the west side in this area). The north wall was completely occupied by the Amitabha sutra illustration. In the center is the preaching scene of the Buddha and on two sides are bodhisattvas listening to Buddha's preaching. The architecture in this illustration is very special. Above the water are platforms and two side corridors, the pavillion with an east Asian hip and gable roof consists of two storeys, three jian in depth and three jian in width. There is no eave under the flat base of the upper storey. This kind of depiction is only seen among the Early Tang paintings.There is no window or wall between the pillars of the upper and lower storeys, which is replaced by the hanging curtains. The ground of the platform is paved with flowered tiles, similar to the customs of the Tang dynasty. On the space above the east entrance is a preaching scene, and on either side of it is a preaching scene of a seated Buddha. The south side of the entrance contains a standing Buddha and two bodhisattva in the center and a row of male donors of the Five Dynasties below (obscured). The north side contains a eleven-headed Avalokitesvara illustration in the center, and a row of male donors painted in the Five Dynasties (obscured). On the lower parts of the north and east walls in the main chamber are male donor figures, most of them have been obscured. Judged from the numbers in the surviving inscriptions, people who sponsored the construction of this cave were mainly from the Zhang, Lihu,and Cao families. On the tent-like ceiling of the corridor are part of a parasol and a desk painted in the Five dynasties. The north and south slopes are decorated with hanging draperies.On the tent-like ceiling of the corridor are part of a parasol and a desk painted in the Five dynasties. The north and south slopes are decorated with hanging draperies. A hell illustration was rendered on the south side of the entrance in the west wall of the front chamber (which was revealed in 1965 by removing the surface layer of paintings), and on the north side beneath the Five Dynasties paitnings are traces of the Early Tang murals. The south wall is covered with a Samantabhadra illustration (imcomplete) and the north wall with the Manjusri illustration (incomplete). ...
Constructed in the Early Tang and renovated in the Five Dynasties, this is a small hall cave with a truncated pyramidal ceiling. There is a niche with double recesses dug out of the west wall, containing a seven-stuccoed figures; a Buddha, two disciples, two bodhisattvas and two heavenly kings. The heavenly kings have features of a non-Chinese foreigner;  high nose bridges, thick eyebrows and big eyes. The ceiling center has a pattern of twisted vines.  The drapery around the center extends to the four slopes. The decorative borders of twisted vines connect the the four walls with the four slopes. There is a preaching scene of Maitreya in the center of the south wall, which is surrouded by the thousand Buddha motifs. The north wall presents an illustration of the Amitabha sutra in the center, also surrounded by the thousand Buddha motifs. There are three preaching scenes above the entrance on the east wall. The south side of the entrance depicts a preaching scene of the Medicine Buddha, while the north has a standing disciple image with four donor figures. On either north or south of the brim of the entrance is a worshiping bodhisattva painted in the Five Dynasties. On the tent-like ceiling of the corridor in a Buddha in meditation painted in the Five Dynasties. On both of the north and south walls of the corridor are covered with the Buddhas in meditation, only two has survived on each  side walls.

Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes Cave 322

  • DYNASTY::Early Tang Dynasty(A.D.618-712)
  • Summary:Constructed in the Early Tang and renovated in the Five Dynasties, this is a small hall cave with a truncated pyramidal ceiling. There is a niche with double recesses dug out of the west wall, containing a seven-stuccoed figures; a Buddha, two disciples, two bodhisattvas and two heavenly kings. The heavenly kings have features of a non-Chinese foreigner; high nose bridges, thick eyebrows and big eyes. The ceiling center has a pattern of twisted vines. The drapery around the center extends to the four slopes. The decorative borders of twisted vines connect the the four walls with the four slopes. There is a preaching scene of Maitreya in the center of the south wall, which is surrouded by the thousand Buddha motifs. The north wall presents an illustration of the Amitabha sutra in the center, also surrounded by the thousand Buddha motifs. There are three preaching scenes above the entrance on the east wall. The south side of the entrance depicts a preaching scene of the Medicine Buddha, while the north has a standing disciple image with four donor figures. On either north or south of the brim of the entrance is a worshiping bodhisattva painted in the Five Dynasties. On the tent-like ceiling of the corridor in a Buddha in meditation painted in the Five Dynasties. On both of the north and south walls of the corridor are covered with the Buddhas in meditation, only two has survived on each side walls. ...